Answer question giving details | biology 426

  1. Think of one negative feedback loop that we discussed this semester and describe it in a great detail including the following: what sets it into motion, what processes are mobilized in this feedback loop, and what is the ultimate outcome? Be specific when describing organs, parts of the organ, cells and molecules.
  2. We discussed many different ions/minerals/electrolytes. Think of one ion we talked about in a great detail in different contexts and describe what would happen as a result of this ion deficiency.  You can think of several lectures where we mentioned this ion and what could be the broad consequences of its deficiency regulating at least 2 distinct processes in the body. (e.g sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, etc)
  3. What are the differences between the primary and secondary humoral immunity responses with respect to the time to produce the antibodies, their levels, and the persistence of the response (think about what we discussed and the graph we analyzed)? Knowing this, why do you think it is helpful to get vaccinated and specifically what mechanism is used by the antibodies in protection against the virus. Be specific!
  4. Imagine, you went on an amazing cruise and all of a sudden you found yourself stranded at sea. You have nothing to drink and your body is working hard to retain the water. Describe how one hormone can help you with that and explain exactly it would be doing in different parts of the body and on the cellular or molecular level. Be very specific and describe what is happening actually as you are stranded-the heat, lack of water, etc.

5. Think of one of the systems you learned about this semester and describe in detail one fun fact that you learned about that was surprising. Write about what you previously thought/believed and what you know now using details. (e.g general misconception is the feces contain undigested food but in fact they contain for example bacterial cells, or sloughed cells of our bodies; e.g histamine is often associated only with allergies , but in fact it plays a very important role in inflammation-describe that role; even though majority of our amino acid source comes from the diet , a large portion comes from digestion of our own cells and enzymes)

6. We discussed different disorders that are more common in men than in women and vice versa. Think of one such disorder and explain why is it more common in one of the sex over the other using the anatomical and/or physiological differences as part of your evidence .

7. Think of 2 organs that we can live without and why? What function of these organs must be replaced and how can they be replaced?

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