Joanna has suffered a series of personal setbacks, including the death of a family member, academic problems in college, and a divorce. She feels so sad, upset, and lonely that she is contemplating suicide. Joanna could probably best be helped by a(n) _____ psychologist.
Which statement best characterizes the evolutionary perspective of psychology?
A. Human behavior is best understood in terms of the individual capacity for growth, free will, and self-direction.
B. To fully understand human behavior, you must understand how behavior varies among different cultures.
C. A given psychological process exists in the form it does because the process solved a specific problem of individual survival or reproduction that repeatedly occurred over the course of human history.
D. As medical and technological advances have evolved, the biological basis of behavior should be the primary focus of contemporary psychology
Researchers interested in how sleep deprivation affected performance, randomly assigned participants to groups that had one, two, or three nights of sleep deprivation. They then tested their reaction times on a standard motor reaction task. The dependent variable in this experiment was:
A. the amount of sleep deprivation each group was subjected to.
B. how much sleep each group needed following the sleep deprivation experiment.
C. the reaction times of the three groups on the standard motor reaction task.
D. how often the participants fell asleep during the sleep deprivation phase of theexperiment
Your instructor notices that in many of his classes, the longer he lectures, the more student yawns he sees. This represents:
A. a positive correlation.
B. a negative correlation.
C. a cause-and-effect relationship.
D. scientific proof that yawning is contagious
After collecting her data and performing a number of statistical analyses, Jana noticed that the standard deviation was very large. This indicates that:
A. there was a relatively large number of scores in the distribution
B. the distribution was positively skewed.
C. the scores were clustered around the mean and were not spread out.
D. the scores had a great deal of variability and were not clustered around the mean.
In Howard Gardner’s theory, distinct forms of intelligence include:
A. verbal comprehension, numerical ability, perceptual speed, and reasoning.
B. linguistic, creative, musical, scientific-mathematical, performance, intellectual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence.
C. linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence.
D. analytic, creative, and practical intelligence
The development of medications that helped control the symptoms of severe psychological disorders and development of techniques to study the human brain contributed to the importance of _____ psychology in recent decades.
Scores on tests of individual differences, including intelligence test scores, often follow a pattern in which most scores are in the average range with fewer scores in the extremely high or extremely low range. What is this pattern of distribution of scores called?
A. the normal curve or normal distribution
B. the reliability distribution
C. the variability distribution
D. the standard distribution
Jonathan is a very bright 10-year-old with a mental age of 12. If tested on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, his IQ score would most likely be:
According to Professor Zarkov’s correlational data, there is a statistically significant relationship between the socioeconomic level of a family and how much time the parents spend talking to their children. To say that the results of this study are “statistically significant” means that:
A. there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables.
B. the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance.
C. the finding has no mathematical validity.
D. the finding can be used to generate new theories.
Approximately two-thirds (68 percent) of all scores on the WAIS fall between _____ and _____, a range that is considered to indicate normal or average intelligence.
B. 50; 150
C. 85; 115
D. 60; 130
Fifty students took the midterm exam in Dr. Axelrod’s class. In order to get some idea of the most “typical” score, Dr. Axelrod added up all the scores and divided the sum by 50. The product of this calculation is called the:
B. standard deviation.
Psychologists who counsel students, perform assessments, and who help teachers, school administrators, and parents understand how children learn and develop are known as _____ psychologists.
Why do researchers try to avoid being detected by their subjects when engaged in naturalistic observations?
A. The researchers themselves could be considered to be a dependent variable that affects the results of the study.
B. Naturally occurring behavior patterns might not occur if the subjects become aware that they are being observed.
C. It is unethical to engage in any kind of research, even naturalistic observation, unless there is prior permission by the subjects.
D. Subjects may continue to act naturally with the researchers, but the researchers may not act like researchers once they begin to interact with the subjects
Which of the following best represents psychology’s basic goals?
A. investigate and treat mental illness
B. describe, explain, predict, and influence (or change) behavior
C. listen to, counsel, and console people with problems
D. apply the findings of animal research to abnormal behavior
Researchers at the Allied Mental Health Center are conducting a study to determine how quickly symptoms of depression are reduced by different forms of psychotherapy. What is the independent variable in this study?
A. change in the symptoms of depression
B. method used to recruit participants for the study
C. form of psychotherapy used to treat depression
D. cost of the study
The research method that is used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effects on another variable is called the:
A. descriptive method.
B. correlational method.
C. experimental method.
D. meta-analytic method
Humanistic psychology emphasized:
A. the active role played by mental processes in organizing sensations into meaningful perceptions.
B. the experimental study of overt, observable behaviors.
C. unconscious determinants of personality and behavior.
D. free will, self-determination, psychological growth, and human potential
A correlation coefficient is:
A. numerical indicator of the strength and direction of a relationship between two factors.
B. independent variable that is used in a correlational study.
C. numerical indicator of the statistical significance of the findings in a particular research study.
D. index of the practical rather than the statistical significance of research findings
In survey research, the term sample refers to a(n):
A. preliminary questionnaire that is used to develop the final survey
B. carefully selected segment of the larger group that is to be studied
C. small pilot study that is later repeated using a larger group of participants
D. example of a completed questionnaire, which is mailed to survey
In Dr. Foster’s study, one group is given a new medication that is believed to reduce anxiety. Another group is given a medication that looks like the real medication but it has none of the active ingredients in it to affect anxiety. In this experiment, the experimental group is the:
A. group that receives the new medication.
B. group that receives the medication without the active ingredients.
C. anxiety group.
D. group without anxiety
A researcher sets out to test the following statement: “Adolescents are more likely to start smoking if one or both of their parents smoke.” This statement is an example of:
A. a theory.
B. an operational definition.
C. a hypothesis.
D. experimenter bias
Dr. Harmon wants to study the conditions under which some children are rejected by their peers. Daily, from the beginning of a school year, she carefully observes and records the behavior of kindergartners, first-graders, and second-graders in the classroom and on the playground. Dr. Harmon is using:
A. a survey.
B. naturalistic observation.
C. a case study.
D. the experimental method
Which area of psychology is most interested in examining individual differences and the characteristics that make each person unique?
A. educational psychology
B. social psychology
C. cross-cultural psychology
D. personality psychology
Of the following correlation coefficients, which represents the strongest relationship between two factors?
In order to find out if her new abstract reasoning test is good at measuring what it was designed to measure, Dr. Marshall compares the scores on her test with the scores and grades of college students enrolled in courses that involve abstract reasoning. In this instance, Dr. Marshall is in the process of:
A. establishing the test’s reliability.
B. establishing the test’s validity.
C. standardizing the test.
D. Establishing the test’s variability
The _____ perspective of psychology emphasizes the importance of unconscious influences and early life experiences in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior.
Dr. Macmillan has designed a test to measure mathematical ability in college graduates. In order to establish a norm against which individual scores may be interpreted and compared, she is presently administering the test to a large representative sample of college graduates. Dr. Macmillan is in the process of:
A. establishing the test’s validity.
B. establishing the test’s reliability.
C. standardizing the test.
D. establishing the test’s representation
Ramon has organized his data into both a frequency distribution and a polygon. Now he wants to summarize the data with a single number that provides information about the “typical” score, or the “center” of the distribution. Ramon would be advised to use:
A. a measure of central tendency.
B. an inferential statistic, called thet-test.
C. the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique.
D. a correlation coefficient.
While conducting research on intelligence, the experimenters were very careful to control for unwanted variability in such factors as age, gender, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and so on. They did this in order to avoid or minimize the influence of:
A. extraneous or confounding variables.
B. dependent or outcome variables.
C. demand characteristics.
D. practice effects
The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on:
A. the important role of mental processes in how people process information, developlanguage, solve problems, and think.
B. how overt behavior is acquired and modified by environmental influences.
C. the diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries.
D. the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonalrelationships on a person’s self-concept, and the importance of choice and self-direction instriving to reach one’s potential
Behaviorism was characterized by:
A. the rejection of consciousness as a topic in psychology and a focus upon observable behavior.
B. a narrow focus upon consciousness and conscious experience.
C. a focus upon the importance of free will, self-determination, and psychological growth.
D. an emphasis upon the unconscious determinants of personality.
A representative sample is a:
A. group of participants that closely parallels the larger group to be studied on all relevant characteristics, such as age, sex, and race.
B. sample questionnaire that represents the most likely set of survey responses.
C. small group of volunteers who try to predict the survey results.
D. list of all the possible questions that might be represented on the final survey.
Tyler wants to know how much the scores in his data differ from each other and whether the scores are widely spread out. Tyler would be well advised to use:
A. a measure of central tendency.
B. the correlation coefficient.
C. a measure of variability.
D. the analysis of variance technique (ANOVA)
Under the American Psychological Association’s ethical code for psychologists, psychological researchers:
A. must respect the dignity and welfare of the research participants.
B. must consult each participant’s family doctor.
C. are never allowed to deceive research participants.
D. can identify research participants by name, but only in professional journals.
In an experiment investigating the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves concentration and memory, all the participants had an equal chance of being assigned to any of the three conditions in the study. The researchers have used _____ to minimize the possibility of bias when assigning participants to the different groups.
the practice effect
the single-blind technique
the double-blind technique